IDENTIFICATION OF FIBERS AND WEAVING TECHNOLOGY IN THE REMAINS OF FABRICS DISCOVERED FROM KUH-E KHWAJA, A PARTHIAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE IN SISTAN, IRAN
The aim of this study is to characterize fibers, spinning and weaving techniques of fabric remains found in Kuh-e Khwaja, a Parthian archaeological site in Sistan, Iran. For this purpose, 26 samples, including fabric remains (17 cases) and separate yarns (9 cases), were examined. The fibers were identified using light microscopy and FTIR spectroscopy, and the yarn twist directions, the angle of pretwist of the fibers, and the weaving pattern of the fabrics were examined by light microscopy. The results showed that a similar type of fiber was used for both warp and weft in each fabric. Among the study, 12 cases (46%) and 14 cases (54%) have been characterized as wool and cotton respectively, which indicates the prosperity of both agriculture and animal husbandry in the Parthian period in the Sistan region. The yarn twist directions in both warp and weft were the same in all fabrics and were Z/Z type, except for one sample (Z/S). Also, single-ply (21 samples, 81%) and double-ply yarns (5 samples, 19%) showed Z-twist and S(2z)-twist, respectively. Most of the fabrics showed a plain weave; however, warp rib, irregular matt, twill, basket weave, and also knitted fabric were observed among them. In addition, the results showed that wool yarns have a lower angle of pretwist compared with cotton yarns. Therefore, this issue can be used in the primary classification of fabrics found from this archaeological site.
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